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Training and Youth Employment: A RELATIONSHIP TO RETHINK



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The crisis that the country has once again raised the issue of the high rates of youth unemployment compared to the rest of the population. But since this question comes from afar, And that when they analyze issues related to young people to consider the view of the current situation and the major underlying trends in our advanced societies that affect future generations and their role in society. Three issues deserve attention: youth work, their training and their relationship to adult society.

Els for Passats 20 years the work is not part of the lives of young

If we look at the evolution of the relationship between young people and the long term work shows that decades ago that young children 20 years gradually disappearing labor market drastically lowering their rate of activity, ie their availability for work (en el 2012, 22 de cada 100; in the 1977 ended 61 de cada 100), and even in the best times of economic boom have failed to offset the historical decline. Also among those available to work, the large Majoria, almost 3 de cada 4 estan aturats, therefore prein each 100 joves menors of 20 years only 6 treballen i 16 estan atuARE aturatstion 78, not in the labor market. This tendency to withdraw youth labor market does not occur in the range of those between 20 i 24 anys, because over the years has remained fairly stable, the rate of activity, despite variations influenced by the economic, with a slight increase. Today, of 100 Joves of 20 a 24 anys 36 work, 31 ARE aturats i 33 are still outyears the labor market.

Evolution of the employment relationship between young people 1977-2012 a Catalunya

1977 1987 1997 2007 2012
Young 16-19 years
Rate activitat 61,09 49,01 31,19 35,94 22,71
Occupation rate 56,55 22,50 16,54 27,04 6,15
Taxa set 7,43 54,10 46,97 24,76 72,91
Young 20-24 years
Rate activitat 64,34 73,35 66,93 72,07 67,27
Occupation rate 61,50 47,39 48,12 65,41 36,14
Taxa set 4,42 35,39 28,11 9,25 46,27

INE-EPA II Trimestres

This historical comparison leads to emphasize that the relationship between young children 20 years in the labor market is determined by a trend strengthened in every crisis situation but is more related to socio-cultural factors of order more important than short-term fluctuations of the economy, without thereby denying the technological and economic factors influence the extent that take place. The extent and consequences of this trend deserve deep reflection on the part of society. It is sustainable and desirable that young are not present in the labor market until after the 20 years?

The qualification and training of young people is unbalanced

The reason has been put forward so far is that more investment is needed more time to train young people, and therefore it is in the labor market should be forming. But the reality is that Catalonia is still showing a low level of qualification of its workforce. The structure of the qualification of the workforce employed in Catalonia and corresponds to the production model that has developed in recent decades and is now under discussion. In Catalonia there is a broad consensus that the solution to the crisis is directly related to the ability to transform the model into a more productive and internationally competitive higher value-added. To move towards this new model requires human resources with a rating that today the country has not.

If the chart shows clearly that the qualification structure of the workforce in Catalonia and Spain is totally the opposite of the average 27 països of the European Unio. If you consider that the European model is more competitive than our need seems obvious that a profound change of direction to get closer to European models. The differential competitiveness of this country lies in the importance of the intermediate grade of the population rather than on the top level.

To move towards a more competitive structure of qualification must therefore drastically reduce the workforce with low training and doubling the population with an intermediate, ie with a high school degree or a training course for intermediate.

The quantification of this challenge allows us to offer precise objectives for the entire education system in the coming years. Efforts should be concentrated on the lower levels and train young people joining the labor market, Catalonia and instead is in a good situation with regard to higher education. Achieving this goal would mean that the labor market firms found a higher proportion of skilled manpower to boost production model change.

This hypothesis is based mainly on incorporating young people into the labor market with a much higher level of education than it does today. Despite the extraordinary increase in the number of young people trained in recent decades, there are still too high a number of young people leaving the education system prematurely without adequate training for employment. This question has already been pointed out repeatedly by the OECD and the EU and the experts and organizations in the country, requires urgent attention and priority as their implications for the future of the country will be serious. Dit clarament, Catalonia now has not enough manpower formed to promote an internationally competitive economy. If not quickly increase the level of education of the new generations is also a danger that young people are trapped in a very negative spiral of employment difficulties due to lack of qualification, thus can generate significant tensions in the country's social cohesion.

These facts contrast with the contradiction that on the other hand, A growing number of young people with high levels of qualifications not just find opportunities and professional and choose to migrate to other countries. So, the Situació és complexa, interacting factors and socio-economic order as well as other types of cultural and environmental.

Young people open their life chances at European or world, is not just negative but actually was boosted by the messages and policies that are aimed at young, So will the internationalization of Catalan economy, such as using the same Erasmus seeking greater mobility of young European professionals. The problem arises when transmitting to future generations that his country has no future, so that young people can then go in disarray as is happening in Ireland or Estonia and lose most definitely human and cultural capital that the country has been able to generate in its entire history.

Cal doncs, focused much attention on the situation and prospects of young people in Catalonia. Convey confidence in the future and the involvement of young people in its construction by providing the necessary support to make it believable. Improving the performance of the education system so that all young people complete their studies and not leave education without specialized training and professional contributing to increased competitiveness of companies. Mobilizing the entire productive by offering internship opportunities for young people so that they can acquire the necessary experience to become good professionals.

The models of alternation between training and work as a model of transition from youth to adulthood have proven effective in other developed countries. In the futur of Catalunya, the transition of young people into the labor market should be more similar to the practice in other European countries is that we have inherited from the past.


Oriol Homs

October 2012

Published in Monograph No 17 Atur juvenil: a generation at risk published by the Foundation J. Pujol



Atur juvenil

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